The Next Generation of Internet Technology
The Next Generation of Internet Technology
Abstract: In this paper, the characteristics of IPv4, IPv6 and IPV9 were summarized, and in the digital domain name system, routing management, security, application scope, and development trends. The three comparative study, analysis of their advantages and disadvantages. Regardless of evolution from IPv4 to IPv6 or advance to IPV9, mature service should be based on IPv4 to support compatibility agreement. Although the current IPV9 development is slow, it is believed that IPV9 will contribute to network security in the future.
Keywords: IPv4; IPv6; IPV9
Internet Protocol is a communication Protocol designed for computers to communicate with each other over the network. IP provides a common rule for computers to follow when they connect to the Internet, thus making the Internet the largest open network in the world. With the rapid development of global economy and the progress of communication technology and network technology, the penetration rate of computer and mobile terminal is getting higher and higher. The problems with IPv4 are also exposed. For example, in the address space, performance, network security and routing the downside of bottlenecks, so that IPv4 difficult to meet the needs of the Internet in the future. In order to solve the many problems in IPv4, IPv6, IPV9 and other Internet protocols have been born.
2. The status of IPv4
IPv4 has played a key role in the development of networks, but with the expanding of network size, cannot meet the demand of network development, the first is the address resources are exhausted, lead directly to address the crisis, although no classification of addressing CIDR technology, network address translation NAT technology to alleviate the crisis, but still can't solve the problem.
Secondly, the topology of address space directly leads to the form of address allocation has nothing to do with the network topology. With the growth of the number of networks and routers, the excessive expansion of routing table increases the cost of searching and storage, and becomes the bottleneck of the Internet. At the same time, the length of the packet header is not fixed, and it is very inconvenient to use hardware to implement path extraction, analysis and selection, so it is difficult to improve the routing data throughput rate. Then there is the uneven distribution of IP addresses. Due to its origin in the United States, more than half of all addresses are owned by the United States, resulting in a serious imbalance in IP address distribution.
And lack of Quality of Service support, when the design not introduced the concept of QoS, and is designed for military, does not want to open to the public, thus in the Quality of Service QoS and security is lacking, it is very difficult to real-time multimedia, mobile IP and other business services provide QoS function, although later development RSVP protocol to provide QoS support, but the cost of planning and constructing IP networks is relatively high.
3. The characteristics of IPv6
The IPv4 protocol is currently widely deployed Internet protocols. The IPv4 protocol is simple, easy to implement, and interoperable. However, with the rapid development of the Internet, IPv4 design is increasingly obvious shortcomings, lack of IPv4 address space, the number of routing table entries need to maintain large. Compared with IPv4 IPv6 has the following characteristics.
(1) IPv6 has a larger address space. Specified in the IPv4 length for the 32-bit IP address, that is 2 ^ 32-1 address; In IPv6 IP address length is 128, that is 2 ^ 128-1 address. The address space is significantly larger than the 32-bit address space.
(2) IPv6 uses smaller routing tables. IPv6 address allocation starts with the principle of Aggregation, which enables the router to represent a subnet with an Entry in the routing table, greatly reducing the length of the routing table in the router and improving the speed of packet forwarding.
(3) IPv6 adds enhanced Multicast support and Flow Control, which gives multimedia applications on the network the opportunity to grow substantially and provides a good network platform for QoS, Quality of Service Control.
(4) IPv6 has added support for Auto Configuration. This is an improvement and extension of the DHCP protocol, making the network management more convenient and faster.
(5) Better header format. IPV6 uses a new header format with options that are separate from the base header and can be inserted between the base header and the upper data if desired. This simplifies and speeds up the routing process because most options do not require routing.
Despite the obvious advantages of IPv6, there are a large number of IPv4 routers, and the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 is a gradual process with backward compatibility. Therefore, IPv6 and IPv4 will coexist for a long time. Moreover, IPv6 has many flaws in the design of its address structure. IPv6 confuses the network hierarchy in its design. The interface ID embedded the physical layer's address into the logical address layer, which, on the one hand, caused the space of physical address to form the limitation of empty IP address. Because with the development of security technology, security methods and key length will change constantly, so the development of security technology will eventually lead to the IP address redesign requirements. Because of the chaos of the network's hierarchical logic, IPv6 creates far more problems than it solves.
4 .The definition of IPV9
This new type of network covers the new address coding design, the new addressing mechanism and new address three technologies, the architecture design aims to build a new generation of IP network at the bottom of the core technology system, on the basis of the design of the new framework, can be connected through, compatible to cover both network (Internet) using IPv4 and IPv6 technology of network system. In 2011, the authoritative professional institutions of the us government have legally and technically confirmed that China has sovereign network core technologies with independent intellectual property rights that are different from the existing Internet technologies of the us under the IP framework. This is IPV9 (Method of using whole digital code to assign address for computer) patent technology, the official patent name is "the Method of using whole digital code to assign address for computer".
The IPV9 protocol refers to the 0-9 Arabic digital network as the virtual IP address, and uses decimal as the text representation method, which is a convenient way to find online users; in order to improve efficiency and facilitate end users, some of the addresses can be directly used. The domain name is used; at the same time, it is also called "new generation security and reliable information integrated network protocol" because it uses the classification and coding of the original computer network, cable broadcast television network and telecommunication network.
5. The main advantages of IPV9
Compared with traditional IPv4 and IPv6, the changes of IPV9 mainly include the following aspects. IPV9 has a larger address space than IPv4 and IPv6. IPv4 address length is 32 bits, that is, there are 2 ^ 32-1 address; IPv6 address length is 128, that is, there are 2 ^ 128-1 address; But able to address capacity increased to 256, that is 2 ^ 256-1 address. In mobile communication, the biggest disadvantage of IPv4 is that there are not enough addresses for people to use mobile devices. If IPv6 is widely used, the world's IP shortage will be solved. After the widespread use of IPV9, the world will not run out of IP addresses for the next 750 years.
5.1 Digital Domain Name System
In the digital domain name system, IPv4 and IPv6 are resolved through the United States, while IPV9 is set by countries, which avoids the IP address limitation and reduces the cost of using the domain name in countries. Able is based on the digital coding used for computer allocation method of address of the invention patent development with independent intellectual property rights "decimal" network, its decimal network introduced digital domain name system, can use a decimal network will be binary address into decimal text originally, make online computer interconnected, able to communicate with each other, data transmission and can be compatible with the domain name in both Chinese and English.
The decimal network using digital domain technology, reduces the difficulty of network management, the address of the vast space and the increase of security mechanism, solves the existing IPv4 is facing many problems, its automatic configuration, service quality and advantages in aspects of mobility support can meet the needs of the different levels of various equipment in the future.
5.2 Routing Aspects
In terms of routing, Internet growth in the size of routing tables so that IPv4 expansion, so that the efficiency of network routing drop down. The emergence of IPV9 solves this problem, and the optimization of routing optimization improves the operating efficiency of the network. IPV9 establishes an IPV9 tunnel between the mobile unit and the proxy, and then relays the data packet addressed to the mobile unit's home address received by the "proxy" used as the mobile unit to the current location of the mobile unit through the tunnel, thereby Achieve support for network terminal mobility.
The IPv6 routing table is smaller than IPv4. IPv6 address allocation follows the principle of aggregation (Aggregation), which enables the router to use a record (Entry) to represent a subnet in the table, which greatly reduces the length of the routing table in the router and improves the routing table forwarding. The speed of the packet. IPV9 routing table is very small, address assignment IPV9 outset follow the principle of geographical spatial clustering, making a record with IPV 9 router can represent a country and a sub-sub-applications significantly reduces the router The length and cleanliness of the routing table improves the speed at which the routing table forwards packets. At the same time this subnet can express a specific location, according to this logic, between the state and the country, needs only one route can be, for example, pointing to China route for 86/64. The IPv4 routing table is extremely large and irregular. The IPv6 routing table is smaller than IPv4, but the IPv6 routing table does not contain geographic information and the routing is cluttered.
In terms of security, the encryption technology and authentication technology of IPv9 are significantly improved compared with IPv4, and the encryption technology proposed by IPv9 is difficult to decipher in the physical level, and the confidentiality performance has been significantly improved. However, in the aspect of network information security, there are still many factors that lead to insecure network information in China. The fundamental reason is that the root servers of IPv4 and IPv6 are in the United States. Many network-related patents are in the hands of the United States. IPV9 is an Internet protocol with independent intellectual property rights, which can provide a great guarantee for national information security. IPV9's address space enables end-to-end secure transport, making it possible to assign addresses directly to devices that people use. IPv4 and IPv6 do not have the concept of national geographic location, and most of its domain name resolution servers are in the United States, while IPV9 puts forward the concept of "sovereign equality", so that each country has its own root domain name system, which guarantees the sovereignty and security of each country on the Internet.
6 .The advantage of IPV9
IPv9 has more advantages than IPv4 and IPv6. It can provide enough domain names and IP addresses for the future Internet of things products, provide new identity authentication and digital authentication for everyone, and provide unique identity codes for the products produced to achieve anti-counterfeiting in the circulation process. Using the features of IPV9 in security, a more secure and harmonious network environment can be established. The promotion of IPV9 brings the improvement of economic benefits. According to statistics, China pays a total of several hundred billion Yuan to the United States for Internet use every year using IPv4/IPv6, including address rental fee, domain name resolution fee, channel resource fee and hardware and software equipment fee, etc., among which address, domain name resolution and channel resource usage fee alone amount to more than 100 billion Yuan. And the future of the Internet user base will be further increased, will spend more online fees, network information security risks. The development of IPV9 with independent intellectual property rights not only reduces the cost of people accessing the Internet, but also ensures the security and privacy of people's network information.
From the current advantages of IPV9, IPV9 technology can solve the problem of IP address shortage for a long time, and in China has the core of independent intellectual property rights, ipv9-based network relative to IPV4 and IPV6 on the security has been improved. If the use of IPV9 technology to achieve the network, can also save a lot of rental costs, and master the root domain name server, to ensure more secure network.
7. Development and obstacles
Whether transitioning from IPv4 to IPv6 or evolving to IPV9 is a gradual process, mature services based on IPv4 must be maintained to support interoperability between old and new protocols. As a result, the next generation of the Internet is still in its infancy in China, where IP addresses are sorely lacking. Equipment makers such as cisco, which has a large number of IP addresses, have introduced IPv6 routers.
IP networks only charge network access fees, and mainstream technologies cannot well support successful business models, which is the fatal point of IPV9. Governments and vendors around the world support IPv6. IPV9 supporters are limited, and it is difficult to form a scale and provide good services in the short term. Relying on China's independent development, it is difficult to combat the network externalities that IPv6 has formed and the research results that cost a lot of manpower and financial resources, and it is also difficult to form scale benefits and reduce costs by entering the network market for commercial purposes.
With the development of the Internet and the increasing number of Internet users, the lack of IPv4 address resources has become a bottleneck restricting its development. Regardless of IPv4 evolution to IPv6 or advance to IPV9, the mature services based on IPv4 support protocol compatibility. Everyone believes that IPV9 can contribute to network security, but IPv6 has taken the international mainstream, and IPV9 has not been internationally recognized, a competitive disadvantage. In the civil Internet, IPv6 is undoubtedly the mainstream standard. The IPV9 is likely to gain a foothold in both military and some government networks from a national security perspective. No matter what the future trend is, providing a safe, efficient, stable and reliable network environment is our common goal.
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